The estate was founded in 1689 by Pierre de Mazure de Rauzan and the vineyard acquired its name a few years later when his daughter Thérèse received it as part of her dowry on her marriage to Jacques de Pichon Longueville, the first President of the Parliament of Bordeaux. Thus began the history of one of the most famous Bordeaux vineyards which, for one and half centuries, remained a single holding in the hands of one family.

In 1850, the estate was divided amongst the five children of Baron Joseph, however only two of his children finally inherited the vineyards. Raoul took the plot destined for the two sons, while Virginie took the plot for the three daughters. From then on, the lands of Pichon Longueville would have two very different futures. Virginie married Count Henri de Lalande, giving her the title Comtesse de Lalande, and took over control of the Domaine. Her passion and the quality of her management made her a strong personality in the Médoc and she very much left her mark on the estate.

In the 1855 classification Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande acquired the status of Deuxième Cru Classé. In 1925 Edouard and Louis Miailhe purchased the estate. May-Eliane de Lencquesaing, the daughter of Edouard, inherited it in 1978. She quickly rekindled the same enthusiasm that had inspired the Comtesse de Lalande, sharing with her a love of the land and its wines. Continuing the tradition of family ownership, Champagne Louis Roederer took over the controlling share of Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande in November 2006.